India that is my Bharath is my sacred and holy Motherland. One of the oldest countries on earth- its age cannot be assessed-it is timeless, beyond times, its culture, civilization, languages, principles, practices, philosophy and so on.
What is deemed to be modern Science or Mathematics, Economics or Commerce, Engineering or Medicine they were all in the day to day use of ancient India!
The great languages and precious literature were part of this land! West looking for this East for peace and composure, thoughts-religious and spiritual is as ancient as our Motherland.
HISTORY MAKERS OF INDIA
Let us have a glance at the ancient personalities who made our country great through their contribution from the days of yore in various fields of human activities and welfare:
Sushruta (600 BCE)
Born to sage Vishwamitra, Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago, he and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like cesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose), 12 types of fractures, 6 types of dislocations, urinary stones and even plastic surgery and brain surgery. Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India. Author of the book “Sushruta Samhita”, in which he describes over 300 surgical procedures and 125 surgical instruments, including scalpels, lancets, needles, catheters and rectal speculums; mostly designed from the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a number of stitching methods; the use of horse’s hair as thread and fibers of bark.
BharadwajaAlso known as Bharadwaj Gotra, a descendant of rishi Angira (vedic sage who wrote most of the Atharva Veda). Lord Rama along with Sita and Lakshmana (in the epic Ramayana) met many rishis and sages including Bharadwaja.
Acharya Bharadwaja authored the ” Yantra Sarvasva ” which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has described three categories of flying machines: (1) One that flies on earth from one place to another. (2) One that travels from one planet to another. (3) And one that travels from one universe to another.
An ancient rishi, the Saptarishi. He was the father of the Devas, Asuras, and all humankind. He was the son of Marichi and Aditi.
Patanjali (200 BCE)
Called the father of Yoga. The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices. Acharya Patanjali , the founder, hailed from the district of Gonda (Ganara) in Uttar Pradesh . He prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness.
Acharya Patanjali ‘s 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body. Yoga has eight limbs where Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyan and dharna.
Kanad (600 BCE)Founder of Atomic Theory. As the founder of “Vaisheshik Darshan” – one of six principal philosophies of India – Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwarika in Gujarat. He was the pioneer expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul. He says, “Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules.” His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2,500 years before John Dalton . Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other. The eminent historian, T.N. Colebrook , has said, “Compared to the scientists of Europe, Kanad and other Indian scientists were the global masters of this field.”
Kapila (3000 BCE)
Called the Father of Cosmology. Acharya Kapil was born in 3000 BCE to the illustrious sage Kardam and Devhuti. He also gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers – incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies.
Bhaskaracharya He calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart; Time taken by earth to orbit the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days. Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya’s mathematical works called “Lilavati” and “Bijaganita” are considered to be unparalleled. In his treatise “Siddhant Shiromani” he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. In the “Surya Siddhant” he makes a note on the force of gravity: “Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction.” Bhaskaracharya was the first to discover gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton.
Chanakya (370–283 BCE)
Chanakya or Vishnu Gupta or Kautilya (his gotra) was a teacher to the first Maurya Emperor Chandragupta – the first emperor in the archaeologically recorded history to rule the complete Indian Subcontinent.
He authored the ancient Indian political treatise called Arthasastra. Chanakya is considered as the pioneer of the field of economics and political science and his work is thought of as an important precursor to Classical Economics. Chanakya’s works predate Machiavelli’s by about 1,800 years. Chanakya was a teacher in Takshashila, an ancient centre of learning.
A Hindu philosopher who lived during the reign of the Gupta Empire (4th – 6th century AD), is believed to be the author of the Kama Sutra. In the second chapter , Vatsyayana describes 64 kama-kalas, or ways to make love. These are not 64 positions, but the categories of different modes of lovemaking, namely ’embracing, kissing, scratching, biting, the positions, moaning, the woman playing the man’s part, and oral sex.’ As each of these modes of sex is supposed to have eight different particular manifestations, there are thus sixty-four ways in which a man or woman could be said to be having sex in its broadest sense. But kama-kalas are not just tools for successful love making, they also lie at the heart of what constitutes an educated man.
The famous poet and the author of the epic Ramayana.
Panini (600 BCE)Panini is known for his Sanskrit grammar, particularly for his formulation of the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit syntax and grammar known as Ashtadhyayi (“eight chapters”), the foundational text of the grammatical branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of Vedic religion.
Nagarjuna (100 CE)Born in the village of Baluka in Madhya Pradesh, his dedicated research produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy, like “Ras Ratnakar”, “Rashrudaya” and “Rasendramangal”. As the author of medical books like “Arogyamanjari” and “Yogasar,” he also made significant contributions to the field of curative medicine. He was appointed as Chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda.
One of the Saptarishis. He was the Maanasa-putra (“a brain child”) of Brahma. He possessed the divine cow known as Kamadhenu and the Kamadhenu’s child Nandini. Vashishtha is the author of some parts in the Rigveda.
An ancient rishi, a great philosopher of the Mimansa school. He was the son of wandering rishi Parashara, and a disciple of Veda Vyasa.
Varahamihira (499-587 CE)Varahamihir’s book “panch siddhant”, noted that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight. In the “Bruhad Samhita” and “Bruhad Jatak”, he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varahamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees.
Some of the other sages were:
Astika (the son of Manasa and Jaratkaru, the Vyasa of the twenty-seventh Dwapara) Atri (A legendary scholar and a son of Brahma – a Sapta Rishi)
Bhrigu (One of the Saptarishis and one of the Prajapatis (and Maanasa Putra – a brain child) that Brahma created as facilitators of creation)
Kraustuki (Markandeya’s disciple)
Kripacharya (an important character in the Mahabharata; one of the Chiranjivin (the “immortals”).
Marichi (The son of Brahma and also one of the Saptarishis)
Narada (A divine sage (son of Brahma) in the Vaishnava tradition)
Paráshara (A Rigvedic Maharishi and author of many ancient Indian texts. He was the grandson of Vasishtha and the author of some verses in the Rigveda)
Prahlada (amahajana – that is, a “great devotee”, in the puranic Vaishnava traditions).
Pulatsya (One of the ten Prajapatis – sons of Brahma, and one of the Saptarishis. He was the spiritual vibration through the power of which some texts of the Puranas were written)
Shukra (son of Bhrigu)
Vaishampayana (the original teacher of the Black Yajur-Veda)
Yajnavalkya (A legendary ancient sage, a pupil of Vaishampayana)
There are several notable female rishikas who contributed to the composition of the Vedic scriptures. The Rig Veda mentions Romasha, Lopamudra, Apala, Kadru, Visvavara, Ghosha, Juhu, Vagambhrini, Paulomi, Yami, Indrani, Savitri, and Devajami. The Sama Veda adds Nodha, Akrishtabhasha, Sikatanivavari and Gaupayana.
India’s other contributions to the world:
India’s greatest gift to Humanity – Mathematical innovations include ZERO; use of DECIMAL NUMBERS and DICE.
Budhayana explained in the 6th century, the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem, long before the European mathematicians.
Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India; Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11th century; The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were (10 to the power of 6) whereas Hindus used numbers as big as (10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 BC during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest used number is Tera 1012 (10 to the power of 12).
By 1,500 BC, Indians used figures like square, circle, rectangle, angles, triangle, fractions, algebraic formulae and astronomy and metaphysics.
The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindh 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH. The word navy is also derived from Sanskrit ‘Nou’.
The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra. According to Saka King Rudradaman I of 150 BC a beautiful lake called ‘Sudarshana’ was constructed on the hills of Raivataka during Chandragupta Maurya’s time.
Originated in India – Pharmacology, brain surgery, medicine, artificial colors and glazes, metallurgy, re-crystallization, chemistry, textile production, hydraulic engineering, water powered devices, etc.
There are several success stories like Rabindranath Tagore (1913 Nobel Prize in Literature), CV Raman (1930 Nobel prize for Raman effect), JC Bose’s discovery of microwaves by 1895 and Prof. Jagdeesh Bose (USA based IEEE has proved what has been a century-old suspicion in the world scientific community that the pioneer of Wireless communication was not Marconi).
BARD OF BENGAL
In such a back ground of Indian history, it is not surprising that another great personality was bestowed to the Bharath by Bengal –RABINDRANATH TAGORE-whose 156th birth day is today. Here is my humble poetic tribute to him:
“Bard of Bengal was born today years hundred and fifty five ago
Brought fame to India that is Bharath winning Nobel prize sans ego
Founder of Shanthi Nikethan and spread Upanishadic values
Of education- reformer and Bahma samajist of value!
A poet, writer, painter of excellence-Gandhiji’s trusted friend
For the world, VOICE OF INDIA’S SPIRITUAL HERITAGE he was
Through his nobility of thoughts and writings set a valuable trend
Won the Nobel prize for his song celestial GITANJALI-wealth a mass!”
Tagore was honored with the Nobel Prize for his immortal GEETHANJALI-Song offerings- originally written by him in Bengali and later translated by himself into English. …
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913 was awarded to Rabindranath Tagore “because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill he gave this work to the world.”
In his “SONG Offerings” , Tagore finds the way out to unite the soul with divinity uses modernized images from the great classical Indian love poetry to symbolize his yearning to merge with the Supreme.Therefore, the mud stained traveler, the parched summer earth, the bride awaiting the return of her lord, the first monsoon shower, the flowers, the rivers and the conch are images which gain a mystical depth in these poems.
On this holy day of Rabindranath Tagore’s 156th birth anniversary ENVIUS THOUGHTS pays its homage to him in the shape of this Sunday Story.
(For this SUNDAY STORY, I have taken refuge extensively in GOOGLE GURU.)
Kindly click the second lin, chose my article BHARATHIYAR’S OPTIMISM, read and make your comments on the space provided below the article so that it can be seen by all readers around the world. Thanks.
— Those who have missed by any chance, please read an article PERSON OF THE WEEK – N V SUBBARAMAN – an Interview of the Editor INDIAN PERIODICAL with me published on 31st July 2016 from their archives. This article has been read by more than 2500 and their second highest read Interview/article in the last two years and more.